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Martin Luther King or Malcolm X? Rationality & Anger

Martin Luther King or Malcolm X? Rationality & Anger



Martin Luther King and Malcolm X are often seen as having opposing views about how to achieve equality and black rights. In his autobiography, Stride Towards Freedom, King emphasizes calmness and always non-violence. Whereas Malcolm X, in his autobiography, emphasized freedom by any means necessary, through the Nation of Islam and possibly Black Nationalism. The Civil Rights Movement was defined by these figures, but what if they were two sides of a single coin? What if both ‘rationality’ and ’emotion’ are necessary for social action and for rendering what W.E.B du Bois called, in the Souls of Black Folks, ‘the veil.’

Original Score by August Aghast:

‘The Veil’
‘Servant of Two Masters’

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Sources:

Du Bois, W.E.B., The Autobiography of W.E.B. Du Bois (U.S.A.: International Publishers Co. Inc., 1968)

Du Bois, W.E.B., The Souls of Black Folk (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

Fanon, Frantz, Black Skin White Masks (London: Pluto Press, 2008)

Gilroy, Paul, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (London: Verso, 1993)

Hegel, G.W.F., Lectures on the Philosophy of World History, vol. 1, ed. and trans. by Robert F. Brown & Peter C. Hodgson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Hegel, G.W.F., The Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. by A.V. Miller (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977)

Heidegger Martin, Being and Time, trans. by John Macquarrie & Edward Robinson (Oxford: Blackwell, 1962)

Luther-King Jr., Martin, Stride Towards Freedom: The Montgomery Story (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2010)

Luther-King Jr., Martin, The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr., ed. by Carson Clayson (London: Abacus, 2000)

Smith, Sidonie, Where I’m Bound: Patterns of Slavery and Freedom in Black Autobiography (Westport: Praeger, 1974)

Taylor, Charles, Hegel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975)

X, Malcolm and Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X (New York: Ballantine Books, 1973)

X, Malcolm, Malcolm X Speaks, ed. by George Breitman (New York: Grove Press, 1965)

Abu-Lughod, Lila and Catherine A. Lutz, ‘Introduction: Emotion Discourse and the Politics of Everyday Life’, in Language and the Politics of Emotion, ed. Abu-Lughod and Lutz (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Bourke, Joanna, ‘Fear and Anxiety: Writing About Emotion in Modern History’ in History Workshop Journal, no. 55 (2003), pp. 111-133

Brodwin, Stanley, ‘The Veil Transcended: Form and Meaning in W.E.B Du Bois’ “The Souls of Black Folk”’ in Journal of Black Studies, vol. 2, no. 3 (1972), pp. 303-321

Clasby, Nancy, ‘The Autobiography of Malcolm X: A Mythic Paradigm’ in Journal of Black Studies, vol. 5, no. 1 (1974), pp. 18-34

Cone, James H., ‘Martin and Malcolm on Nonviolence and Violence’ in Phylon, vol. 49, no. 3/4, (2001), pp. 173-183

Du Bois, W.E.B., ‘The Negro in Art and Literature’ in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 49 (1913), pp. 233-237

Edwards, Brent Hayes, ‘Introduction’ in Du Bois, W.E.B., The Souls of Black Folk (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007)

El-Beshti, Basher M., ‘The Semiotics of Salvation: Malcolm X and the Autobiographical Self’ in The Journal of Negro History, vol. 82, no. 4 (1997), pp. 359-367

Homer, Bruce. ‘”Students’ Right,” English Only, and Re-Imagining the Politics of Language’ in College English, vol. 63, no. 6 (2001), pp. 741-758

Houlgate, Stephen, ‘Introduction’, A Companion to Hegel (Oxford: Blackwell, 2011)

Jones, William R., ‘Liberation Struggles in Black Theology: Mao, Martin or Malcolm?’ in Philosophy Born of Struggle, ed. by L. Harris (Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 1983)

Lawson Steven F., ‘Freedom Then, Freedom Now: The Historiography of the Civil Rights Movement’ in The American Historical Review, vol. 96, no. 2 (1991), pp 456-471

Miller, K.D., ‘Plymouth Rock Landed on Us: Malcolm X’s Whiteness Theory as a Basis for Alternative Literacy’ in College Composition and Communication, vol. 56, no. 2 (2004), pp. 199-222

Rogers, Raymond and Jimmy N. Rogers, ‘The Evolution of the Attitude of Malcolm X towards whites’ in Phylon, vol. 44, no. 2 (1983), pp. 108-115

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